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青岛家居市场现蝴蝶效应 旺季遇冷

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 地价涨幅26个月来首次低于房价涨幅 土地购置现分化 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

租房贵背后 承载了一个怎样的社会治理难题?

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

As the unstoppable Nazi forces roll across Western Europe and the threat of invasion is imminent, and with an unprepared public, a skeptical King, and his own party plotting against him, Churchill must withstand his darkest hour, rally a nation, and attempt to change the course of world history.
[tr?'din?l]
['medl]
户外空间:从这座露台往下走几步就是一座带有草坪和喷泉、围着围墙的花园。这处房产面积0.10英亩(约405平方米)。
答:其实我并不怎么关心作品火不火的,就是专注于自己的作品而已。每次我关注的就是要怎样用最好地推进剧情而已。我关注的是行为和故事,不是受欢迎程度。
The general weakness in the renminbi, which fell 1.3 per cent in January and had weakened by 2.2 per cent in the final quarter of 2015, is likely playing a part, by making overseas goods more expensive. However, exports have yet to receive a boost from the currency’s depreciation.
"Many companies operating with reduced staff levels are bringing in reinforcements to relieve their overworked teams," notes Max Messmer, Robert Half's chairman and CEO. "While some firms are backfilling positions out of necessity, businesses are also hiring to accommodate anticipated growth in 2011."

WHAT: A house with three bedrooms, two full bathrooms and two half-bathrooms
愿你所有的新年想都成真!
单词intended 联想记忆:
创造一个学习空间,来帮助你最大限度地利用好学习时间。你是喜欢绝对的安静,抑或吵闹的音乐呢?你是喜欢在餐桌上办公,还是想关上门创造了一个安静的空间。理解你喜欢的类型,并创造属于自己的空间。
Pork prices, which are heavily weighted in the food-focused basket of goods used to calculate consumer inflation, rose 4.8 per cent.

Footnotes

  • 美涂士与东易日盛成功联姻
  • 一部富有感染力的、描写一名年轻黑人男同性恋成长故事的影片《月光男孩》(Moonlight),获得2017年奥斯卡(Oscar)最佳影片奖。不过,该片险些与此奖项擦肩而过,原因是在混乱的颁奖现场,此奖项曾被误颁给了《爱乐之城》(La La Land)。

或许是作为回应,在2017年初,中国媒体监管机构在报道票房数据时悄然开始计入在线票务公司收取的服务费。
虽然与其他四部电视剧相比,《大唐荣耀》的评分并不算低,但是仍然有许多观众给出了差评。
他拿出教材,开始做起了家庭作业。
10.Fears of Another Tsunami
['steitm?nt]
以下为2013全球权势女性榜的概要:

宜家布局北上广深 家居业该靠地产还是卖产品?

References

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